As some one who has enjoyed the Lisp language (in several flavors) for about 15 years now, I wanted to express some of my reactions at recently discovering Haskell, and why it has supplanted Lisp as the apple of my eye. Perhaps it will encourage others to explore this strange, wonderful world, where it looks like some pretty damn cool ideas are starting to peek over the horizon.
First, let me say that unlike many posts on the Lisp subject, I have nothing negative to report here. It’s not that I haven’t had my share of ups and downs with Lisp, but that if you want to know about those, look around. Most of what other bloggers have to say is dead on, so there’s little need to repeat it here.
I’ll just address some of the cooler aspects of Lisp, and how Haskell compares in response.
While many dislike Lisp’s abundant parentheses, I fell in love with them. Perhaps it’s because I spend so much of my time working on compilers, and Lisp programs read like their parse trees. This “code/data equivalence” is beautiful. It makes it trivial to write DSLs, for example, since you all you need to do is model the syntax tree as a series of Lisp data structures, and then evaluate them directly. It removes the need for an intermediate parse-tree representation.
When I first approached Haskell, I was shocked at the amount of syntax I saw. Operators abounded — more even than C — like:
$!, etc, etc. The more I looked, the more operators there seemed to be, until I began feel as lost as when I read Perl code.
What I didn’t realize is that in Haskell, much of the syntax you see are just special function names. There is very little “true” syntax going on; the rest is built on top of a highly expressive core. Lisp looks clean because nearly all its operators are used like functions. Haskell goes for an “infix optional” style, which allows you to call anything as either prefix or infix, provided you quality the function name correctly:
(/= (+ 1 2) 4) ; Lisp reads very logically ((/=) ((+) 1 2) 4) -- Haskell can look almost identical! 1 ^ 4 -- this is the infix form of ((^) 1 4)
Nothing can match Lisp’s rigorous purity, but once you see past the sugary veils, Haskell is pretty basic underneath as well. Almost everything, for both languages, boils down to calling functions.
Another beauty of Lisp is its macro facility. I’ve not seen its like in any other language. Because the forms of code and data are equivalent, Lisps macro are not just text substitution, they allow you to modify code structure at compile-time. It’s like having a compiler construction kit as part of the core language, using types and routines identical to what you use in the runtime environment. Compare this to a language like C++, where, despite the power of its template meta-language, it employs such a radically different set of tools from the core language that even seasoned C++ programmers often have little hope of understanding it.
But why is all this necessary? Why do I need to be able to perform compile-time substitutions with a macro, when I can do the same things at runtime with a function? It comes down to evaluation: Before a function is called in Lisp, each of its arguments must be evaluated to yield a concrete value. In fact, it requires that they be evaluated in order1 before the function is ever called.
Say I wanted to write a function called
doif, which evaluates its second argument only if the first argument evaluates to true. In Lisp this requires a macro, because an ordinary function call would evaluate that argument in either case:
(defun doif (x y) (if x y)) ; WRONG: both x and y have been evaluated already (defmacro doif (x y) `(if ,x ,y)) ; Right: y is only evaluated if x is true
What about Haskell? Does it have a super-cool macro system too? It turns out it doesn’t need to. In fact, much of the coolness of Haskell is that you get so many things for free, as a result of its design. The lack of needing macros is one of those:
doif x y = if x then (Just y) else Nothing
Because Haskell never evaluates anything unless you use it, there’s no need to distinguish between macros and functions.
The next amazing thing Lisp taught me about was closures. Closures are function objects which retain information from the scope they were constructed in. Here’s a trivial example:
(defun foo (x) (lambda (y) (+ x y))) (let ((bar (foo 10))) (funcall bar 20)) => 30
foo, I’ve created a function object which adds two numbers: the number that was originally passed to
foo, plus whatever number get passed to that closure in turn. Now, I could go on and on about the possibilities of this mechanism, but suffice it to say it can solve some really difficult problems in simple ways. It’s deceptively simple, in fact.
Does Haskell have all this closurey goodness? You bet it does, in spades.
foo x = (\y -> x + y) -- here \ means lambda bar = foo 10 bar 20 -- arguably cleaner syntax, no? => 30
In fact, Haskell even one-ups Lisp by making partial application something as natural to use as an ordinary function call:
foo = (+) bar = foo 10 bar 20 => 30
This code doesn’t just make
foo an alias for add, which I could have done in Lisp as well. It says that
foo returns a function object expecting two arguments. Then that
bar assigns one of those arguments, returning a closure which references the 10 and expects another argument. The final call provides the 20 to this closure and sets up the addition. The fact I’m evaluating it in the interpreter loop causes Haskell to perform the addition and show me the result.
This combination of lazy evaluation with partial application leads to expressive capabilities I’ve frankly never experienced before. Sometimes it causes my head to spin a bit.
One thing about Common Lisp is that it harkens back to a day when computers were much simpler — before multi-threading, and multiple processor machines were both cheap and common. Since it was designed at a time when there was One Processor to Rule them All, it didn’t go to great lengths to consider how its design might effect the needs of parallelism.
Let’s take function argument evaluation, as a simple example. Because a function call in Lisp must evaluate all arguments, in order, function calls cannot be parallelized. Even if the arguments could have been computed in parallel, there’s no way to know for sure that the evaluation of one argument doesn’t cause a side-effect which might interfere with another argument’s evaluation. It forces Lisp’s hand into doing everything in the exact sequence laid down by the programmer.
This isn’t to say that things couldn’t happen on multiple threads, just that Lisp itself can’t decide when it’s appropriate to do so. Parallelizing code in Lisp requires that the programmer explicitly demarcate boundaries between threads, and that he use global locks to avoid out-of-order side-effects.
With Haskell, the whole game is changed. Functions aren’t allowed to have side-effects, and their value is not computed until needed. These two design decisions lead to situations like the following: Say I’ve just called a function and passed it a bunch of arguments which are expensive to compute. None of these operations need to be done in sequence, because none of them depend on the others for their value. If then I do something in my function which needs some of those values, Haskell can start computing the ones it needs in parallel, waiting on the completion of the whole set before returning the final result. This is a decision the language itself can make, as a by-product of its design.
Lastly, the Haskell community is amazing. Newbies, you are welcome here. Their IRC channel is both a friendly and knowledgable place, where newcomers are cherished and developed.
Likewise, the web resources and books I’ve read about Haskell so far have all been top-notch. You get the feeling people are fascinated by the language, and eager to share their joy with others. What a refreshing change. Lisp may have a rich history, but I think Haskell is the one with the future.